Preliminary study of Endomycodiversity among three ethnomedicinal plants from family Meliaceae in Nigeria
SALISU ABUBAKAR, REBECCAH WUSA NDANA
The natives as well as the ethnic tribes inhabiting the study area of this research work value the plants as a source of medicine to cure some ailments. Many of the pharmaceutical compounds produced from medicinal plants are reportedly produced by their endophytic fungi. Hence, it is important to study endophytic fungi of ethnomedicinal plants and their biodiversity. Modified surface sterilization techniques using 3% surfactant and 70% sterilant were used to clean the explants before culturing. Various biochemical tests such as wet mount using methylene blue, Dalamau technique and urease test were employed for macro and microscopic endophytic fungal identification. Altogether 756 segments of which 26 segments each from leaves (young) and stem (twig) tissues of the respective plants were screened using modified surface sterilization techniques. Thirty one species of endophytic fungi was isolated. Based on taxonomical classification 26 belongs to Ascomycetes 2 Basidiomycetes and 5 species were recorded unidentified. The highest species richness as well as overall frequency of colonization was seen on stems of P. kotschi (20.7%) by Cladosporium species and Fusarium manilliforme from leaves (18%); Rhizoctonia species proved highest frequency of colonization on K. senegalensis stems (15.6%) followed by Cladosporium species on leaves (13.9%). Cryptococcus species showed the highest frequency of colonization on stems of A. indica (14.9%) while Cladosporium species showed the highest colonization on leaves (11%).
Key words: Biodiversity, Biochemical test, Endophytic fungi, Ethnomedicinal plants, Frequency of Colonization, Surface sterilization